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The city saw a feud between two archbishops in , namely Diether von Isenburg , who was elected Archbishop by the cathedral chapter and supported by the citizens, and Adolf II von Nassau , who had been named archbishop for Mainz by the pope.
In , the Archbishop Adolf raided the city of Mainz, plundering and killing inhabitants. At a tribunal, those who had survived lost all their property, which was then divided between those who promised to follow Adolf.
Those who would not promise to follow Adolf amongst them Johannes Gutenberg were driven out of the town or thrown into prison.
The new archbishop revoked the city charter of Mainz and put the city under his direct rule. Ironically, after the death of Adolf II his successor was again Diether von Isenburg, now legally elected by the chapter and named by the Pope.
The Jewish community of Mainz dates to the 10th century CE. It is noted for its religious education. Rabbi Gershom ben Judah — taught there, among others.
He concentrated on the study of the Talmud , creating a German Jewish tradition. Mainz is also the legendary home of the martyred Rabbi Amnon of Mainz , composer of the Unetanneh Tokef prayer.
The Jews of Mainz, Speyer and Worms created a supreme council to set standards in Jewish law and education in the 12th century.
The city of Mainz responded to the Jewish population in a variety of ways, behaving, in a sense, in a bipolar fashion towards them.
Sometimes they were allowed freedom and were protected; at other times, they were persecuted. The Jews were expelled in , after which they were invited to return , and in Jews were attacked in and by mobs in Outbreaks of the Black Death were usually blamed on the Jews, at which times they were massacred, such as the burning of 11 Jews alive in Nowadays the Jewish community is growing rapidly, and a new synagogue by the architect Manuel Herz was constructed in on the site of the one destroyed by the Nazis on Kristallnacht in On 18 March , the Jacobins of Mainz, with other German democrats from about towns in the Rhenish Palatinate , proclaimed the ' Republic of Mainz '.
Led by Georg Forster , representatives of the Mainz Republic in Paris requested political affiliation of the Mainz Republic with France, but too late: Prussia was not entirely happy with the idea of a democratic free state on German soil although the French dominated Mainz was neither free nor democratic.
Prussian troops had already occupied the area and besieged Mainz by the end of March After a siege of 18 weeks, the French troops in Mainz surrendered on 23 July ; Prussians occupied the city and ended the Republic of Mainz.
It came to the Battle of Mainz in between Austria and France. Members of the Mainz Jacobin Club were mistreated or imprisoned and punished for treason.
In , the French returned. Austria and Prussia could not but approve this new border with France in From to , to the German Confederation Mainz was the most important fortress in the defence against France, and had a strong garrison of Austrian, Prussian and Bavarian troops.
In the afternoon of 18 November , a huge explosion rocked Mainz when the city's powder magazine, the Pulverturm , exploded.
Approximately people were killed and at least injured; 57 buildings were destroyed and a similar number severely damaged in what was to be known as the Powder Tower Explosion or Powder Explosion.
During the Austro-Prussian War in , Mainz was declared a neutral zone. For centuries the inhabitants of the fortress of Mainz had suffered from a severe shortage of space which led to disease and other inconveniences.
In Mayor Carl Wallau and the council of Mainz persuaded the military government to sign a contract to expand the city. Beginning in , the city of Mainz assimilated the Gartenfeld , an idyllic area of meadows and fields along the banks of the Rhine to the north of the rampart.
The city expansion more than doubled the urban area which allowed Mainz to participate in the industrial revolution which had previously avoided the city for decades.
He also planned the first sewer system for the old part of town since Roman times and persuaded the city government to relocate the railway line from the Rhine side to the west end of the town.
The Mainz master builder constructed a number of state-of-the-art public buildings, including the Mainz town hall — which was the largest of its kind in Germany at that time — as well a synagogue, the Rhine harbour and a number of public baths and school buildings.
In the demolition of the entire circumvallation and the Rheingauwall was taken in hand, according to imperial order of Wilhelm II.
During the German Revolution of the Mainz Workers' and Soldiers' Council was formed which ran the city from 9 November until the arrival of French troops under the terms of the occupation of the Rhineland agreed in the Armistice.
The French occupation was confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles which went into effect 28 June The Rhineland in which Mainz is located was to be a demilitarized zone until and the French garrison, representing the Triple Entente , was to stay until reparations were paid.
In Mainz participated in the Rhineland separatist movement that proclaimed a republic in the Rhineland.
It collapsed in The French withdrew on 30 June Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in January and his political opponents, especially those of the Social Democratic Party, were either incarcerated or murdered.
Some were able to move away from Mainz in time. One was the political organizer for the SPD, Friedrich Kellner , who went to Laubach, where as the chief justice inspector of the district court he continued his opposition against the Nazis by recording their misdeeds in a page diary.
They hoisted the swastika on all public buildings and began to denounce the Jewish population in the newspapers.
In , the Nazis remilitarized the Rhineland with great fanfare, the first move of Nazi Germany 's meteoric expansion. The former Triple Entente took no action.
During World War II, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings.
Mainz was captured on 22 March against uneven German resistance staunch in some sectors and weak in other parts of the city by the 90th Infantry Division under William A.
Patton , Jr. From to , the city was part of the French zone of occupation. Mainz is home to the headquarters of the Bundeswehr' s Landeskommando Rhineland-Palatinate and other units.
The following list shows the largest minority groups in Mainz as of [update] :. The destruction caused by the bombing of Mainz during World War II led to the most intense phase of building in the history of the town.
During the last war in Germany, more than 30 air raids destroyed about 80 percent of the city's center, including most of the historic buildings.
The air raid caused most of the dead and made an already hard-hit city largely leveled. Nevertheless, the post-war reconstruction took place very slowly.
While cities such as Frankfurt had been rebuilt fast by a central authority, only individual efforts were initially successful in rebuilding Mainz.
The reason for this was that the French wanted Mainz to expand and to become a model city. Mainz lay within the French-controlled sector of Germany and it was a French architect and town-planner, Marcel Lods , who produced a Le Corbusier-style plan of an ideal architecture.
Even after the failure of the model city plans it was the initiative of the French founding of the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz , elevation of Mainz to the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, the early resumption of the Mainz carnival driving the city in a positive development after the war.
The City Plan of by Ernst May allowed a regulated reconstruction for the first time. At the time of the two-thousand-years-anniversary in the city was largely reconstructed.
During the s and s the Oberstadt had been extended, Münchfeld and Lerchenberg added as suburbs, the Altstadttangente intersection of the old town , new neighbourhoods as Westring and Südring contributed to the extension.
By there remained only a few ruins. The town used Jacobsens activity for the Danish Novo erecting a new office and warehouse building to contact him.
The urban renewal of the old town changed the inner city. During the s the Kisselberg between Gonsenheim and Bretzenheim, the "Fort Malakoff Center" at the site of the old police barracks, the renewal of the Main Station and the demolition of the first post-war shopping center at the Markt followed by the erection of a new historicising building at the same place.
The city of Mainz is divided into 15 local districts according to the main statute of the city of Mainz. Each local district has a district administration of 13 members and a directly elected mayor, who is the chairman of the district administration.
This local council decides on important issues affecting the local area, however, the final decision on new policies is made by the Mainz's municipal council.
In accordance with section 29 paragraph 2 Local Government Act of Rhineland-Palatinate , which refers to municipalities of more than , inhabitants, the city council has 60 members.
Until , the districts of Bischofsheim now an independent town , Ginsheim-Gustavsburg which together are an independent town belonged to Mainz.
The former districts Amöneburg , Kastel , and Kostheim — in short, AKK are now administrated by the city of Wiesbaden on the north bank of the river.
The coat of arms of Mainz is derived from the coat of arms of the Archbishops of Mainz and features two six-spoked silver wheels connected by a silver cross on a red background.
Mainz is home to a Carnival , the Mainzer Fassenacht or Fastnacht , which has developed since the early 19th century. Carnival in Mainz has its roots in the criticism of social and political injustices under the shelter of cap and bells.
Today, the uniforms of many traditional Carnival clubs still imitate and caricature the uniforms of the French and Prussian troops of the past.
The height of the carnival season is on Rosenmontag "rose Monday" , when there is a large parade in Mainz, with more than , people celebrating in the streets.
The first ever Katholikentag , a festival-like gathering of German Catholics, was held in Mainz in Johannes Gutenberg , credited with the invention of the modern printing press with movable type, was born here and died here.
Since the Mainzer Johannisnacht commemorates the person Johannes Gutenberg in his native city. The Mainz University , which was refounded in , is named after Gutenberg ; the earlier University of Mainz that dated back to had been closed down by Napoleon's troops in Mainz was one of three important centers of Jewish theology and learning in Central Europe during the Middle Ages.
Known collectively as Shum , the cities of Speyer , Worms and Mainz played a key role in the preservation and propagation of Talmudic scholarship.
There are also a couple of radio stations based in Mainz. The local football club 1. FSV Mainz 05 has a long history in the German football leagues.
Since it has competed in the Bundesliga First German soccer league except a break in second level in —08 season. Mainz is closely associated with renowned coach Jürgen Klopp , who spent the vast majority of his playing career at the club and was also the manager for seven years, leading the club to Bundesliga football for the first time.
In the summer the club opened its new stadium called Coface Arena , which was later renamed to Opel Arena.
The local wrestling club ASV Mainz is currently in the top division of team wrestling in Germany, the Bundesliga. As a result of the invasion of Georgia by Russian troops, Mainz acted as a neutral venue for the Georgian Vs Republic of Ireland football game.
Its men's team is playing in the Regionalliga and its women's team is playing in the 2. It was founded on 9 September  by Berno Wischmann primarily for students of the University of Mainz.
It is considered one of the most powerful Athletics Sports clubs in Germany. In the all-time list of the USC, there are nine athletes who have achieved more than 8, points — at the head of Siegfried Wentz points in and Guido Kratschmer world record with points.
Three world titles adorn the balance of USC Mainz. For the discus thrower Lars Riedel attended and and the already mentioned sprinter Marion Wagner Added to 5 titles at the European Championships, a total of 65 international medals and victories at the German Athletics Championships.
The Athletics is one of the largest clubs in the Baseball-Bundesliga Süd in terms of membership, claiming to have hundreds of active players.
The club has played in the Baseball-Bundesliga for more than two decades, and has won the German Championship in and Mainz is one of the centers of the German wine economy  as a center for wine trade and the seat of the state's wine minister.
Due to the importance and history of the wine industry for the federal state, Rhineland-Palatinate is the only state to have such a department.
The sparkling wine producer Kupferberg produced in Mainz-Hechtsheim and even Henkell — now located on the other side of the river Rhine — had been founded once in Mainz.
The famous Blue Nun , one of the first branded wines, had been marketed by the family Sichel. Mainz had been a wine growing region since Roman times and the image of the wine town Mainz is fostered by the tourist center.
The Mainzer Weinmarkt wine market is one of the great wine fairs in Germany. Johann-Joseph Krug , founder of France's famous Krug champagne house in , was born in Mainz in Mainz is a major transport hub in southern Germany.
It is an important component in European distribution, as it has the fifth largest inter-modal port in Germany.
The Port of Mainz , now handling mainly containers, is a sizable industrial area to the north of the city, along the banks of the Rhine.
In order to open up space along the city's riverfront for residential development, it was shifted further northwards in Mainz Central Station or Mainz Hauptbahnhof , is frequented by 80, travelers and visitors each day and is therefore one of the busiest 21 stations in Germany.
Additionally, the Mainbahn line to Frankfurt Hbf starts at the station. Access to the East Rhine Railway is provided by the Kaiserbrücke , a railway bridge across the Rhine at the north end of Mainz.
Mainz offers a wide array of bicycle transportation facilities and events, including several miles of on-street bike lanes. Mainz is served by Frankfurt Airport , the busiest airport by passenger traffic in Germany by far, the third busiest in Europe and the ninth busiest worldwide in Located about 10 miles 16 kilometres east of Mainz, it is connected to the city by an S-Bahn line.
Mainz is twinned with: . Mainz has a number of different names in other languages and dialects. Before the 20th century, Mainz was commonly known in English as Mentz or by its French name of Mayence.
It is the namesake of two American cities named Mentz. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
This article is about the city in Germany. For the light cruiser, see SMS Mainz. For the Mainz sword, see Gladius.
Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Coat of arms. Location of Mainz. See also: Timeline of Mainz. See also: Electorate of Mainz.
Main article: Republic of Mainz. Main article: Wheel of Mainz. Main article: Mainz Athletics. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany.
Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz in German. Retrieved 13 April Retrieved 11 June Klein editor : Die Römer und ihr Erbe. Leta so mesto izropali Alemani pod Randovim poveljstvom.
Po padcu Mainza so imeli napadalci odprto pot do Trierja in naprej v Galijo. Po nizu vpadov v 4. V rimski vojski je bilo takrat veliko vojakov iz velikih germanskih plemenskih zvez iz Porenja, se pravi Alemanov, Sasov in Frankov.
Franki so bili nasprotnik, ki je v 3. Za svojo prestolnico je izbral Soissons. Ecij je pred tem okoli leta porazil kralja Salijskih Frankov Klodvika.
Njegov sin Merovej se je na rimski strani vojskoval proti Atili, njegov sin Hilderik I. Franki so se medtem postopoma infiltrirali na Hilderikovo ozemlje in prevzeli oblast.
Prodrli so tudi ob Renu navzgor in vzpostavili svojo oblast v nekdanji rimski provinci Gornji Germaniji s prestolnico v Kölnu.
Da bi jih razlikovali od Salijskih Frankov, so jih imenovali Ripuarski Franki. Nekdanji Belgi so preprosto postali Franki.
Proti koncu 5. Hilderikov sin Klodvik I. Leta je porazil zadnjega soissonskega vladarja Sjagrija in zasedel severno Francijo. Po padcu Rimskega cesarstva leta so Franki pod Klodvikom I.
Njegov naslednik Dagobert I. V Mainzu so leta — kovali solidus Teodeberta I. Prve judovske skupnosti v Mainzu so nastale v Judje v Mainzu, Speyerju in Wormsu su v Leta , in so jih celo izgnali leta so jim dovolili vrnitev.
Leta jih je napadla podivjana mestna drhal.